AR City

AR Cities, or Augmented Reality Cities, are cities that are merge the digital and phycical realms through digital technologies, such as digital twins.

AR Cities combine key aspects of Augmented Reality (AR) and Computer Vision (CV) to change the way we perceive our cities as we walk and explore them. This technology has the potential to eventually replace existing mapping systems.

AR City Functionality

AR Cities can offer the functionality:

AR-Based Navigation

Visualisation of walking routes in augmented reality

Enhanced Map Content

Overlay of AR information related to the user's location, such as streets and landmarks.

Urban Visual Positioning

Recognition, positioning and directional information using computer vision.

AR City Software

AR City Platforms

Blippar AR City

Here Platform


AR Development Toolkits

Layar SDK

Layar SDK was an augmented reality SDK for iOS and Android apps.

Vuforia Augmented Reality SDK

Vuforia Augmented Reality SDK, formerly Qualcomm's QCAR, is a Software Development Kit for creating augmented reality applications for mobile devices.

Wikitude SDK

Wikitude SDK is an augmented reality SDK for mobile platforms originated from the works on the Wikitude World Browser app by Wikitude GmbH.

Apple ARKit

ARKit, an Apple SDK, currently designed exclusively for iOS 11+ app creation. Formerly Metaio, purchased by Apple in 2015.

Google ARCore

ARCore, a Google SDK, currently designed exclusively for Android 8.0+ app creation.

AR Content Management Systems


Augment, a web based platform for managing 3D models and creating augmented reality experiences.

Blippar Blippbuilder

Blippbuilder, by Blippar, is a web-based system for creating AR experiences with image recognition.

Webcam Social Shopper

Webcam Social Shopper, web based software for integrating apparel visualization on e-commerce sites.

AR Broadcast Media

Arti AR

The first cloud-based AR platform for the broadcast media industry


zSpace for Education

Interaction with 3D objects in lesson plans that align with Common Core

End-to-end branded app solutions

  • Aurasma
  • Blippar
  • Nokia City Lens
  • Wikitude

Open source

A-Frame (virtual reality framework), A Framework that adds HTML tags for most of the functionality in three.js and other JavaScript features as a superset of this lower level underlying 3-D framework ApertusVR is an embeddable, open-source (MIT), framework-independent, platform-independent, network-topology-independent, distributed AR / VR / MR engine; written in C++; with JavaScript and HTTP Rest API (in Node.js). It creates a new abstraction layer over the hardware vendors in order to integrate the virtual and augmented reality technologies into any developments, products. ARToolKit, an open source (LGPLv3) C-library to create augmented reality applications; was ported to many different languages and platforms like Android, Flash or Silverlight; very widely used in augmented reality related projects. OpenIllusionist provides software libraries for generating images, interpreting user input, modelling the behaviour of virtual objects (or 'agents'), and threading all of the above to provide the illusion of reality. AR.js, an open source (MIT-licensed) library to allow development of marker-based, Natural Feature Tracking and location-based AR applications on the web. It can be used in conjunction with A-Frame (virtual reality framework) or three.js.

AR Projection Mapping

AR Projection Mapping is the process of using a projector to illuminate surfaces with any structure. The image plane of the projector already contains the individual characteristics of the surface structure to be illuminated. The use of a precisely fitting template in the image plane of the projector is the basic prerequisite for projection mapping. Such a template can be created by calculation (using photographs) or by tracing the surface structures through the projector, for which special techniques are used.

Static and Dynamic Projection Mapping

Projection mapping is possible with all types of projectors. Depending on the reproduction characteristics of the projector, a distinction is made between static and dynamic image content.

Static projection mapping

Static projection mapping is implemented with projectors that can reproduce still images (photos), such as slide projectors and overhead projectors. The precisely fitting template is contained in the image plane (film, slide). The precisely fitting still images are then projected onto the predefined surface.

Dynamic projection mapping

Dynamic projection mapping is implemented with projectors that can reproduce image sequences, in most cases with video projectors. In this case, the precisely fitting template is contained in the file that is output via the imaging layer of the video projector. The precisely fitting image sequences are then projected onto the predefined surface.

AR Tags

ARTag is a system of reference markers to support augmented reality. They can be used to facilitate the appearance of virtual objects, games and animations in the real world. Like the earlier ARToolKit system, they enable video tracking capabilities that calculate camera position and orientation relative to physical markers in real time. Once the camera's position is known, the virtual camera can be positioned at the same point, revealing the virtual object at the ARTag location. It thus solves two key augmented reality problems: point-of-view tracking and interaction with virtual objects.

ARTag appears in the Mars Science Laboratory. A similar method is used in NASA's smartphone app Spacecraft 3D as an educational tool.

ARTag is supported by Goblin XNA open source software.


Visit our media section for a complete overview.


AR Cities
AR City
Augmented Reality Cities
Augmented Reality City
Spatial Web
Virtual Reality Cities
Virtual Reality City
VR Cities
VR City


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This page was last changed on 2021-09-21.